Dietary intake of pregnant adolescents cared for in primary health care units of a Brazilian urban municipality

Enilce de Oliveira Fonseca Sally, Luiz Antonio dos Anjos, Eloane Gonçalves Ramos, Vânia de Matos Fonseca, Bruna de Andrade Messias da Silva, Vivian Wahrlich

Resumen


Objective: to evaluate the adequacy of dietary intake and the anthropometric nutritional status of pregnant adolescents in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Materials and methods: forty-two adolescents (13-19 years of age), with single-fetus gestation, assisted in the public prenatal health care units between 2008-2014, participated in the study. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess the nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed by 24h dietary recalls on two days during a week and one during weekend. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry and used to determine the energy requirements. Mixed effects models were used to assess dietary intake over the gestational weeks (random effect) and BMI.


Results: mean age (SD) of the pregnant women was 16.5 (1.5) years and the majority received allowance from a cash transfer federal program. Overall, 30.3% were overweight/obese pre-pregnancy and 16.7%, during pregnancy. Energy and protein intake adequacies decreased with increasing BMI and gestational week. There was adequate dietary intake of energy, protein, vitamin A and zinc and insufficient intakes of iron and calcium. There was excessive intake of sodium.


Conclusions: pregnant adolescents living in underprivileged socio-economic environments assisted for prenatal care in primary health care units have adequate intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A and zinc. Pre-pregnancy overweight and high sodium intake are causes of concern due to the future implications for their health. The official Brazilian recommended criterion for anthropometric assessment in pregnancy of adolescents proved to be inadequate.

 


Palabras clave


pregnancy, adolescent, nutritional status, dietary intake

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.1412

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