Enfoque genómico en la enfermedad cardiovascular

Ismael San Mauro-Martin, Licia de la Calle-de la Rosa, Sara Sanz-Rojo, Elena Garicano-Vilar, María José Ciudad-Cabañas, Luis Collado-Yurrita

Resumen


Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares (EC) constituyen la principal causa de muerte a nivel mundial. La etiología es multifactorial, pueden influir diversos factores como la dieta, los hábitos de vida, el nivel de ejercicio físico o la carga genética. El gran número de genes implicados, así como sus diversas variantes, pueden influir sobre el riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares por medio de distintas vías.

Objetivo: determinar la relación existente entre diferentes polimorfismos genéticos y el riesgo individual de EC en población infantil y adulta.

Métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando la base de datos PubMed. La búsqueda se limitó a un periodo de diez años y a metaanálisis realizados en humanos.

Resultados: se establece relación entre el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y los siguientes polimorfismos genéticos: cromosoma 9p21, apolipoproteína A5, apolipoproteínas E2, E3 y E4, gen PPARG o PPARϒ, genes implicados en el metabolismo lipídico, gen MTHFR, citocromo P450, factor V de coagulación o factor de Leiden (FVL) y gen VKORC.

Conclusiones: Se han identificado un gran número de genes relacionados con la enfermedad cardiovascular. La carga genética puede influir de manera directa o indirecta sobre el riesgo cardiovascular, modificando factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular o actuando sobre la medicación empleada para tratarla.


Palabras clave


Enfermedad cardiovascular; Polimorfismo; Infancia; Genética

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.23

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