Suplementación con cromo en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 y elevado riesgo de diabetes tipo 2: un metaanálisis de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados

Ismael San Mauro-Martin, Ana María Ruiz-León, María Alicia Camina-Martín, Elena Garicano-Vilar, Luis Collado-Yurrita, Beatriz de Mateo-Silleras, María de Paz Redondo del Río

Resumen


Introducción: el cromo es un oligoelemento esencial para el metabolismo de carbohidratos y lípidos, que actualmente está prescrito para controlar la diabetes mellitus. Los resultados de las revisiones sistemáticas anteriores y metaanálisis de los suplementos de cromo y de perfiles metabólicos en diabetes han sido inconsistentes.

Objetivo: el objetivo de este metaanálisis fue evaluar los efectos sobre los perfiles y la seguridad de la suplementación de cromo en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y el colesterol.

Métodos: se realizaron búsquedas bibliográficas en PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science mediante el uso de palabras clave relacionadas y ensayos clínicos aleatorios durante el período de 2000-2014.

Resultados: trece ensayos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y se incluyeron en esta revisión sistemática. Las dosis totales de la suplementación con Cr y levadura de cerveza oscilaron desde 42 hasta 1.000 mg/día, y la duración de la suplementación varió de 30 a 120 días. El análisis indicó que hubo un efecto significativo de la suplementación de cromo en los diabéticos en la glucemia en ayunas, con un tamaño del efecto promedio ponderado de -29,26 mg/dl, p = 0,01, IC del 95% = -52,4 a -6,09; y sobre el colesterol total, con un efecto promedio ponderado de -6,7 mg/dl, p = 0,01, IC del 95% = -11,88 a -1,53.

Conclusiones: la evidencia disponible sugiere efectos favorables de la administración de suplementos de cromo sobre el control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Los complementos de cromo pueden además mejorar los niveles de colesterol total.


Palabras clave


Diabetes tipo 2; Hiperglucemia; HbA1c; Colesterol; Cromo; Ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.27

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