Impact of the two different iron fortified cookies on treatment of anemia in preschool children in Brazil

Liejy Agnes Landim, Marcia Luiza Dos Santos Beserra Pessoa, Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa Brandão, Marcelo Antonio Morgano, Marcos Antônio de Mota Araújo Marcos Antônio de Mota Araújo, Maurisrael de Moura Rocha, José Alfredo Gomes Arêas, Regilda Saraiva dos Reis Moreira-Araújo


Introduction:Nutritional intervention in pre-school children using cookies prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CWFFeFA) and cookies prepared with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) flour fortified with iron and zinc and wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CCFFeZn + WFFeFA).

Objective: To assess the impact of the ingestion of CWFFeFA and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA by pre-school children, using the cowpea variety BRS-Xiquexique, to control iron-deficiency anaemia.

Methods: Nutritional intervention was conducted in municipal day care centres selected at random (n = 262) involving pre-school children aged 2 to 5 years living in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. To assess the socioeconomic data, BMI-for-age, haemoglobin levels before and after intervention, and dietary intake, the children were divided into group 1 (G1), which received CWFFeFA (30 g), and group 2 (G2), which received
CCFFeZn + WFFeFA (30 g). Food acceptance was evaluated daily.

Results: The prevalence of anaemia in G1 and G2 before the nutritional intervention was 12.2% (n = 18) and 11.5% (n = 30), respectively. After intervention, the prevalence decreased to 1.4% in G1 (n = 2) and to 4.2% in G2 (n = 11). Food acceptance by pre-school children in G1 and G2 was 97.4% and 94.3%, respectively.

Conclusion: The use of both types of cookie formulations decreased the prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children, and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA yielded the greatest decrease.

Palabras clave

Nutritional intervention. Anaemia. Pre-school children. Fortification. Cowpea.

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