Evaluación de la dieta en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica sin diálisis y su relación con el estado nutricional

Almudena Pérez Torres, María Elena González García, Ana María López Sobaler, Rafael Jesús Sánchez Villanueva, Rafael Selgas Gutiérrez


Background: Diet is one of the pillars of the treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease without dialysis (NDD-CKD). Despite this, very few studies have evaluated the diet in Spanish population.

Objective: To evaluate the diet of a group of patients with advanced CKD, comparing it with the recommendations, and its relation with nutritional status.

Material and methods: A cross-sectional study of 74 patients (39 men), with a mean age of 70.9 ± 13.6 years and creatinine clearance of 15.3 ± 2.1 mL/min. Biochemical, anthropometric and intake variables (3-day dietary record) were collected, comparing them with the recommendations for patients with CKD and, if they did not exist, with nutritional recommendations and objectives for the Spanish population. The nutritional status was assessed by modified criteria of protein-energy wasting (PEW).

Results: The mean energy intake was 23.2 ± 6.5 kcal/kg body weight/day, and the protein intake was 0.93 ± 0.2 g/kg body weight/day. Men had a higher intake of alcohol and vitamin D whereas women presented a higher intake of trans fatty acids and vitamin B1. In addition, 91.4% of patients had high intake of phosphorus and 73% of potassium. Only 2.7% showed an adequate intake of vitamin D and 21.6% of folates; 18.9% of patients presented PEW. A positive correlation was found between albumin, body mass index (BMI) and creatinine clearance.

Conclusion: Most patients with non-dialysis CKD do not meet dietary recommendations or nutritional goals, regardless of gender and PEW status, considering renal function as a limiting factor.

Palabras clave

Malnutrición; enfermedad renal crónica avanzada; desgaste; dieta; recomendaciones nutricionales.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.960

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