Body composition of patients with autism spectrum disorder through bioelectrical impedance

Kamila Castro, Larissa Slongo Faccioli, Diego Baronio, Carmem Gottfried, Ingrid Schweigert Perry, Rudimar Riesgo


Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in sociability, communication, and limited repertoire of interests and behaviors.

Objectives :We aimed to investigate the nutritional status through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and antrophometrics variables in 63 ASD children and adolescents (10.5 ± 4.1 years; 81% male).

Materials and methods: Anthropometric variables were weight, height, and waist circumference (WC); body composition (fat mass, fat free mass) and phase angle (PA) were obtained through BIA.

Results: The body mass index showed a prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight of 38.9, 36.5 and 15.8%, respectively. According to the body fat percentual, obesity prevalence was 49.2%, and 49.2% showed WC > 80th percentile for age. Eleven patients presented lower PA values than references.

Conclusion: According to the these parameters, a large percentual of ASD children and adolescents in this sample had total overweight and obesity and truncal adiposity, which causes concern, as well as the percentage of underweight participants.

Palabras clave

Autism spectrum disorder. Body composition. Nutritional status. Nutrition.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


American Psychiatric Association; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). 5 ed: 2013.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. 2014;63:1-21.

Buescher AV, Cidav Z, Knapp M, Mandell DS. Costs of autism spectrum disorders in the United Kingdom and the United States. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:721-728.

Khetrapal N. Overlap of autism and seizures: understanding cognitive comorbidity. Mens Sana Monogr. 2010;8:122-128.

Accardo JA, Malow BA. Sleep, epilepsy, and autism. Epilepsy Behav. 2015; 47:202-206.

McElhanon BO, McCracken C, Karpen S, Sharp WG. Gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014;133:872-883.

Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G. Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47:921-929.

D'Cruz AM, Ragozzino ME, Mosconi MW, Shrestha S, Cook EH, Sweeney JA. Reduced behavioral flexibility in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychology. 2013;27:152-160.

Marí-Bauset S, Llopis-González A, Zazpe-García I, Marí-Sanchis A, Morales-Suárez-Varela M. Nutritional status of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): a case-control study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45:203-212.

Kawicka A, Regulska-Ilow B. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2013;64:1-12.

Emond A, Emmett P, Steer C, Golding J. Feeding symptoms, dietary patterns, and growth in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2010;126:e337-342.

Souza NC, Mendonca JN, Portari GV, Jordao Junior AA, Marchini JS, Chiarello PG. Intestinal permeability and nutritional status in developmental disorders. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012;18:19-24.

Attlee A, Kassem H, Hashim M, Obaid RS. Physical Status and Feeding Behavior of Children with Autism. Indian J Pediatr. 2015;82:682-687.

Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000;320:1240-1243.

World Health Organization (WHO). Population-based approaches to childhood obesity prevention. 2012.

Weber DR, Leonard MB, Zemel BS. Body composition analysis in the pediatric population. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2012;10:130-139.

Chan RS, Woo J. Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:765-783.

Shypailo RJ, Butte NF, Ellis KJ. DXA: can it be used as a criterion reference for body fat measurements in children? Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008; 16:457-462.

Jensky-Squires NE, Dieli-Conwright CM, Rossuello A, Erceg DN, McCauley S, Schroeder ET. Validity and reliability of body composition analysers in children and adults. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:859-865.

Talma H, Chinapaw MJ, Bakker B, HiraSing RA, Terwee CB, Altenburg TM. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition in children and adolescents: a systematic review and evidence appraisal of validity, responsiveness, reliability and measurement error. Obes Rev. 2013;14:895-905.

Selberg O, Selberg D. Norms and correlates of bioimpedance phase angle in healthy human subjects, hospitalized patients, and patients with liver cirrhosis. Eur J Appl Physiol.2002;86:509-516.

Baumgartner RN, Chumlea WC, Roche AF. Bioelectric impedance phase angle and body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;48:16-23.

Norman K, Stobäus N, Pirlich M, Bosy-Westphal A. Bioelectrical phase angle and impedance vector analysis-clinical relevance and applicability of impedance parameters. Clin Nutr. 2012;31:854-861.

Ranjan S, Nasser JA. Nutritional Status of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Do We Know Enough? Adv Nutr. 2015;6:397-407.

Hyman SL, Stewart PA, Schmidt B et al. Nutrient intake from food in children with autism. Pediatrics. 2012;130:S145-153.

Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa - Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil (ABEP). Acessed 24 April 2014.

Rutter M. Autism research: prospects and priorities. J Autism Dev Disord. 1996;26:257-275.

Rutter M, Schopler E. Classification of pervasive developmental disorders: some concepts and practical considerations. J Autism Dev Disord. 1992;22:459-482.

Taylor RW, Jones IE, Williams SM, Goulding A. Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as screening tools for high trunk fat mass, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in children aged 3-19 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:490-495.

McCarthy HD, Cole TJ, Fry T, Jebb SA, Prentice AM. Body fat reference curves for children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:598-602.

Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS et al. 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: Methods and development. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat. 2002;11:246.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2000). Defining childhood overweight and obesity. Acessed 24 April 2015.

Barbosa-Silva MC, Barros AJ, Wang J, Heymsfield SB, Pierson RN. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: population reference values for phase angle by age and sex. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:49-52.

Kyle UG, Soundar EP, Genton L, Pichard C. Can phase angle determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis assess nutritional risk? A comparison between healthy and hospitalized subjects. Clin Nutr. 2012;31:875-881.

Gadia C. Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. J pediatr (Rio J). 2004;80:S83-S94.

Gabis L, Pomeroy J, Andriola MR. Autism and epilepsy: cause, consequence, comorbidity, or coincidence? Epilepsy Behav. 2005;7:652-656.

Tuchman RF, Rapin I. Regression in pervasive developmental disorders: seizures and epileptiform electroencephalogram correlates. Pediatrics. 1997;99:560-566.

Rapin I. Autistic regression and disintegrative disorder: how important the role of epilepsy? Semin Pediatr Neurol. 1995;2:278-285.

Hughes JR, Melyn M. EEG and seizures in autistic children and adolescents: further findings with therapeutic implications. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2005;36:15-20.

Hinnell C, Williams J, Metcalfe A et al. Health status and health-related behaviors in epilepsy compared to other chronic conditions-a national population-based study. Epilepsia. 2010;51:853-861.

Pesquisa de orçamentos familiares: antropometria e estado nutricional de crianças, adolescentes e adultos no Brasil (POF). (2010). Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Acessed 10 April 2015.

Xia W, Zhou Y, Sun C, Wang J, Wu L. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:1201-1206.

Curtin C, Bandini LG, Perrin EC, Tybor DJ, Must, A. Prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders: a chart review. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:48.

Filho VC, Lopes AS, Fagundes RR, de Campos W. Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2014;32:333-341.

Andersen LB, Lauersen JB, Brønd JC et al. A new approach to define and diagnose cardiometabolic disorder in children. J Diabetes Res. 2015;539835.

Meguid NA, Kandeel WA, Wakeel KE, El-Nofely AA. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children. World J Pediatr. 2014;10:318-323.

Golec J, Chlebna-Sokół D. Assessment of the influence of body composition on bone mass in children and adolescents based on a functional analysis of the muscle-bone relationship. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2014;16:153-163.

Sluyter JD, Scragg RK, Plank LD, Waqa GD, Fotu KF, Swinburn BA. Sizing the association between lifestyle behaviours and fatness in a large, heterogeneous sample of youth of multiple ethnicities from 4 countries. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:115.

Boeke CE, Oken E, Kleinman KP, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM, Gillman MW. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children. BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:99.

Zanini RV, Santos IS, Gigante DP, Matijasevich A, Barros FC, Barros AJ. Body composition assessment using DXA in six-year-old children: the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica.2014;30:2123-2133.

Kyle UG, Earthman CP, Pichard C, Coss-Bu JA. Body composition during growth in children: limitations and perspectives of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69:1298-305.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.